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Last Updated: 2014/09/27
Summary of question
Prove the existence of God and then indicate how qualities such as being pure, sacrosanct (inviolable), and the greater, etc can be proven in regards to Him?
Prove the existence of God and then indicate how qualities such as being pure, sacrosanct (inviolable), and the greater, etc can be proven in regards to Him?
Concise answer
Allah the Exalted is the absolute and perfect existence with no defects or deficiencies. (He is) a unique existence with the ability to do anything and is aware of all objects (everything) in all situations and at all times. He is receptive and perspicacious (The Hearer and the one who Sees); He has freewill and volition; He is alive and is the creator of everything and the source of all charity and goodness. He loves all his creation and is merciful to them.
The meaning (concept) of the word God is one of the most common and simplest of meanings which all humans, even those who deny His existence, understand.
Although understanding the innate disposition and nature of Allah the Exalted is impossible for human beings, there are a lot of ways to gain certainty about the existence of Allah the Exalted. Generally speaking, the ways of knowing God are as follows:
1. Reason and intellect, such as the argument in regards to the necessary and possible being.
2. Through experimentation and the senses, such as the argument of design.
3. The way of the heart, also known as the argument of fitrah (the innate disposition towards virtue and knowledge)
 The easiest and the best way is the argument of fitrah (knowing God through one's heart i.e. by returning to one's innate disposition); man, without any logic or empirical observation, finds God, and through use of his heart, he can reach the creator[1].
But proving qualities such as purity, inviolability, and the concept of ‘the greater’ and so on can be expressed in the following way: the qualities of the Independent Being are divided into two groups, the negative qualities which indicate deficiency and are never attributed to God and the positive qualities which are fixed and constant in Him, and He has to possess them.
In order to prove the positive qualities such as being Greater and… as it was mentioned in proving the Independent being, the Independent being is needless of effect and one of the means of being needless of cause is being eternal and everlasting, i.e. since God needs no reason (cause) He has always existed and will always exist and since He is the cause of all causes, He is greater than all of them and possesses all of the qualities (perfections) which effects do possess and everything that everyone has is because of Him. The negative qualities are also denied in this way: one of the ways of being an Independent being is to be simple and comprehensive i.e. not to be compound and not to have components, because each compound being is incomplete and cannot be independent since it will be dependent on its components.
Therefore, God is not a compound entity and he is free from all corporal and compound properties. His purity and magnificence indicate that he is immune from any defect or imperfection[2].
Generally, any concept which implies any kind of deficiency, limitation, or need concerning God, are negated and this is the meaning of the negative qualities.

[1] . For further information, refer to the question number 479 (520: Site).
[2] . Understanding Islamic Ideology, Misbah Yazdi, P 66.
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